Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome

There are many different types of repetitive strain injuries that one may fall victim to due to overuse of the muscles of bones of the body. Often it is caused due to the strain incurred in the workplace. Most of these injuries can be easily treated with the symptoms eliminated quickly and easily.

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome – Definition

Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome is a subset of the problem known as complex regional pain syndrome. There are two different types of the complex regional pain syndrome

  • Type 1 – It is known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome.
  • Type 2 – It is known as causalgia.

Both of these syndromes result in a serious feeling of pain that is experienced by the afflicted individual.

The exact cause of this syndrome is still unknown, but the suspected causes include stress, illness, and injuries. It’s a problem that can strike at any age, but more often than not, people between the ages of forty and sixty are affected.

Both men and women fall victim to the syndrome, but women are more likely to contract it. The syndrome develops near the site of an injury that a person has recently experienced.


Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome sufferers may experience a feeling of intense, burning pain that may in fact spread outside of the original area of injury, sometimes even spreading to the opposite limb of where the injury occurred.

The symptoms of type 1 complex regional pain system include intense feelings of pain near the area of injury which is sometimes accompanied by muscle spasms as well as a lack of mobility in the area. Sometimes, hair and nail growth in the area will increase to a highly noticeable degree.


There are no precise tests that can appropriately diagnose complex regional pain syndrome, and most often, doctors diagnose the syndrome purely off of the symptoms that the afflicted person says that they are experiencing.


There are many methods when it comes to treating the syndrome. Many different drugs may be of merit, including anti-depressants as well as corticosteroids, alpha and beta blockers, and others.

Many patients opt for physical therapy as a means of eliminating the syndrome. Since the pain can be great when one moves the affected area, they often neglect moving it which can actually aggravate the problem. Inactivity can lead to growth of the syndrome.

Most often, Doctors prescribe an injection of an anesthetic in order to treat the problem as a first step. Neurostimulation has also been shown to be of merit, helping to ease the pain of reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome by stimulating the spinal cord.

Now that you know more about the problem known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome, you’ll be better able to diagnose the problem should it affect you.

You may want to consider speaking with a doctor if you experience the symptoms of Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome in order to plan the best course of action for dealing with RSDS.

Ergonomic Eye Problems

Ergonomic Problems of Eyestrain is the most common that most computer users all over the world experience. A number of symptoms associated with Ergonomic problems of eyestrain have been experienced and proved worldwide.

Let’s have a look at some of the symptoms related to vision here:

  1. Visual fatigue
  2. Blurred or double vision
  3. Burning and watering eyes
  4. Headaches and frequent changes in prescription glasses

This is now called under the nickname, computer vision syndrome or C.V.S.

American Optometric Association defines, C.V.S as “A complex of eye and vision Problems which are experienced during and related to computer use”.

There is a basic Ergonomic problems with the prolonged viewing of computer screens. The nature of screen characters and images necessitates subtle but continual refocusing. If one has to regularly switch the attention between a close screen and more distant workspace objects things become more complicated. C.V.S results from this change in dynamics.

Another cause of Ergonomic problems is that the average person blinks approximately 4 times per minute, far less than the natural rate of 22 blinks per minute. This lower blink rate causes eye moisture to evaporate, resulting in a “dry eye” condition . The symptoms of dry eye are sensations such as itching, burning, blurring, heavy eyelids, fatigue and double vision.

There is no evidence yet that computer work causes permanent eye damage. But the temporary discomfort that may occur can reduce productivity, cause lost work time, and reduce job satisfaction and self-confidence of the user.

In most cases eyestrain results from visual fatigue or glare from bright windows or strong light sources, light reflecting off the display screen, or poor display screen contrast.

Methods to Avoid Ergonomic problems: Eyestrain

    1. Give ample exercise to the eyes by periodically focusing on objects at varying distances to avoid Ergonomic Problems of eyes strain
    2. Blink the eyes regularly
    3. Try to keep the air around you moist – For instance, you can use plants, open pans of water or a humidifier (spider plants are said to be particularly good for this and removing chemical vapors from the air)
    4. Adjust the screen height/seating so that while you are comfortably seated, your eyes are in line with the top of the monitor screen
    5. Adjust the brightness control on your monitor for comfort. Focusing on the monitor for a long time with full brightness can cause Ergonomic Problems of eyestrain.
    6. Adjust the contrast on your monitor to make the characters distinct from the background
    7. Adjust the refresh rate of your monitor to stop it flickering
    8. You need to position monitors in order to avoid glare (e.g. not directly in front of windows)
    9. Keep your monitor screen clean to avoid Ergonomic Problems
    10. Keep the screen and document holder (if you use one) at the same distance from your eyes
    11. Try to place the reference materials as close to the screen as possible

You need to service, repair, or replace monitors that flicker or have insufficient clarity

  1. Do regular eye testing at least once every 2 years and more frequently if necessary – especially if you are experiencing eye Problems related to using display equipment. Specify the distance from your eyes to the monitor to your optician and get information regarding special lenses or the use of bifocals.
  2. Wear rigid rather than soft contact lens

Ergonomic Problems : Vision


  1. Reading and/or using a computer causes eyes to tear, itch, or hurt.
  2. Jerky eye movements.
  3. Eyes that cross or turn in or out.
  4. Squinting, eye rubbing, or excessive blinking.
  5. Blurred vision.
  6. Light sensitivity after reading.
  7. Double vision.
  8. Headaches, dizziness, nausea, or fatigues easily after reading.
  9. Head tilting, closing or blocking one eye when reading.
  10. Skips lines or loses place when reading.
  11. Difficulty tracking moving objects.
  12. Misaligning letters or numbers.
  13. Unusual posture or moving head closely to see book or paper.
  14. Avoidance of near work such as reading.
  15. While reading, you feel that words, letters, or lines run together or jump around.
  16. Difficulty concentrating or comprehending reading material.
  17. Persistent reversals of numbers, letters, or words after second grade.
  18. Writes crooked or poorly spaced.
  19. Poor eye hand coordination.
  20. Inconsistent or poor sports performance.

Ergonomics Definition

Ergonomics is the applied science of equipment design, as for the workplace, intended to maximize productivity by reducing operator fatigue and discomfort. The Word ergonomics is taken from the Greek words, “ergon” and “nomos”. Ergos means work and nomos means laws, when combined forms as laws of work.

In the present days Ergonomics definition is given as the science, which deals with designing the job to fit the worker, but not forcing them, to fit the job, from the physical stresses it focuses on joints, muscles, nerves, tendons, bones.

When we define ergonomics in term of science, it is the science of designing products that work in accordance with the way humans think, see, and behave. Products that are compatible with people will dramatically reduce human error, fatigue, discomfort, and stress, and have a profound positive impact on overall end-user performance.

The combined effect of good cognitive and physical ergonomics leads directly to consumer pleasure, fulfillment, and immediate acceptance of the product. Ergonomics reduces learning curves and limits the amount of customer education required for product sell-through.

In total, good ergonomics directly contributes to the success of the product and can be measured quantitatively in terms of customer satisfaction, market share, and profitability. Well-designed products sell. Poorly designed ones do not.

History Of Ergonomics

Ergonomics grew into a distinct scientific discipline during World War II. What began as a form of basic human engineering now encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including psychology, industrial design, medicine, and computer science.

Its practitioners’ range of focus includes concept modeling and product design, job performance analysis, functional analysis, workspace and equipment design, computer interfaces, and environment design.

Characteristics Of Ergonomics

The basis of ergonomics understands the physical and cognitive/perceptual limitations of human performance relative to interaction with products. Such interface analysis is crucial to establishing a safe and effective system of operation for the user.

Cognitive Ergonomics

Proper fit of a product to a user does not end with physical interfaces. The perceptual and cognitive demands that a product places on the user must also be examined. Note that a great misconception regarding these areas of human functioning is that they relate to emotive – and therefore qualitative – responses of users.

But rather, both perceptual and cognitive behaviors offer fact-based, quantitative data that can be used in product development.

Physical Ergonomics

A thorough understanding of the physical characteristics of a wide range of people is essential in product development. When analyzing design relative to human performance, ergonomists study anthropometric data, which includes size percentiles of a wide range of populations defined along such lines as gender and age.

Ranges of joint motions, strengths, and grips for various populations are also reviewed. These data serve as valuable information to designers and help ensure that the final product will physically fit the targeted endusers.